Below is a list of terminology used commonly used when delivering transportation projects. I add to the list as I come across more terms and acronyms.

This page was last updated 03/11/2017

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Acceptance Testing (AT)
The testing of materials entering a construction project to verify that the materials, or products, comply with contract specifications.
A highway or transit project proposed for FHWA funding. It also includes activities such as a joint and multiple use permits, changes in access control, etc., which may or may not involve a commitment of federal funds.
Administering Agency
The state or a city, county, other public agency, or nonprofit organizations, that advertise, opens bids, award and administer the contract. They are frequently called local agency or agency and were previously called responsible agency.
Advance Construction (AC)
A project authorization technique that allows the Federal Highway Administration to authorize a project without obligating Federal funds. FHWA is required to fully obligate the Federal share of a Federal-aid project at the time it executes a project agreement. Under an AC authorization, FHWA approves a project as being eligible for Federal funding but does not commit to funding the project. As such, the project must meet all Federal requirements except for the requirement to obligate funds.
Affected Environment
“The physical features, land, area, or areas to be influenced, or impacted, by an alternative alignment under consideration. This term also includes various social and environmental factors and conditions pertinent to an area.”
Means will or may have an effect [or impact].
An administrative distribution of funds among the states, done for funds that do not have statutory distribution formulas.
An alteration, as applicable to Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a change to a building or facility including roadway made by, on behalf of, or for the use of a public accommodation or commercial facility that affects, or could affect the usability of the building or facility, or part thereof. Alterations include, but are not limited to, remodeling, renovation, rehabilitation, reconstruction, historic restoration, changes or rearrangement of the structural parts or elements, and changes or rearrangement in the plan configuration of walls and full-height partitions. Normal maintenance including filling potholes, reroofing, painting or wallpapering, or changes to mechanical and electrical systems are not alterations unless they affect the usability of the building or facility.
One of a number of specific transportation improvement proposals, alignments, options, design choices, etc., in a defined study area. For a transportation project, alternatives to be studied normally include the no-action alternative, an upgrading of the existing roadway alternative, new transportation routes and locations, transportation systems management strategies, multi-modal alternatives, if warranted, and any combinations of the above.
American Association of State Highway and Transportation Official (AASHTO)
AASHTO is a nonprofit, nonpartisan association representing highway and transportation departments in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. It represents all five transportation modes: air, highways, public transportation, rail, and water. Its primary goal is to foster the development, operation, and maintenance of an integrated national transportation system.
American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM)
A national technical society formed in 1902 to standardize specifications, methods of testing materials, and publish information regarding improvement of engineering materials.
Annual Anticipated DBE Participation Level (AADPL)
The level of participation that the local agency would expect DBEs to achieve in the absence of discrimination and the effects of past discrimination on federal-aid contracts awarded in its jurisdiction in a given FFY. This includes an assessment of the availability for specific items of work that DBEs could reasonably be expected to compete for subcontracting opportunities on a federal-aid contract, and their likely availability for work on federal-aid contracts that will be awarded in a given fiscal year. The AADPL is not a goal that the local agency needs to achieve, but the AADPL will be used by the Department to establish a statewide overall DBE participation goal as required by Title 49 CFR, Part 26. The local agency must have an approved AADPL on file with the DLAE before federal funds can be authorized on any new federal-aid consultant or construction contract.
Annual Appropriations Act
An action of a legislative body that makes funds available for expenditures with specific limitations as to amount, purpose, and duration. In most cases, it permits money previously authorized to be obligated and payments made, but for the highway program operating under contract authority, the appropriations act specifies amounts of funds that Congress will make available for the fiscal year, to liquidate obligations.
Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT)
The total volume of vehicle traffic of a highway or road for a year divided by 365 days.
Applicant Funding Participation (Match)
Local cash contributions.
A statutorily prescribed division or assignment of funds. An apportionment is based on prescribed formulas in the law and consists of dividing authorized obligational authority for a specific program among the states.
See ITS Architecture and National ITS Architecture (NA).
Area of Potential Effect (APE)
A term used in Section 106 (Cultural Resource studies) to describe the area in which historic resources may be affected by a federal undertaking.
August Redistribution
The redistribution, in August of each year, of the obligation limitation from those state or programs unable to obligate their shares of the limitation to states or programs that are able to obligate more than their initial share of the limitation.
Formal federal process that establishes a date for which an agency can start reimbursable work for a phase(s) of a project. For the construction phase, an agency must obtain authorization prior to project advertisement. Authorization can be given by Congress, FHWA, or state depending on funding program regulations. Local agencies know they have authorization when they receive “Authorization to Proceed” from Caltrans.
Average Daily Traffic (ADT)
The average number of vehicles two-way passing a specific point in a 24-hour period, normally measured throughout a year.
Avoidance Alternative
A general term used to refer to any alignment proposal, which has been either developed, modified, shifted, or downsized to specifically avoid impacting one or more resources.


Benefit/Cost (B/C) Ratio
The ratio of the benefits of a project or proposal, expressed in monetary terms, relative to its costs, also expressed in monetary terms.
Bid Rigging
A conspiracy to disrupt or circumvent the competitive environment by establishing a competitive advantage for certain bidders


California Department of Transportation (Caltrans)
California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA)
State environmental law requiring State and local agencies to consider the environmental impacts of their decisions when approving public and private projects. Local agencies are the CEQA lead agency for local agency transportation projects “off” the SHS, but Caltrans is the CEQA lead agency for local agency transportation projects “on” the SHS unless otherwise delegated.
California Road System (CRS)
California Streets and Highways Code (S&H Code)
This code contains many of the laws governing funding and development of local streets and roads projects.
California Transportation Commission (CTC)
California Transportation Improvement Program System (CTIPS)
Caltrans (CT)
California Department of Transportation
Caltrans District Transit Representative (DTR)
Caltrans Division of Mass Transportation (DMT)
Caltrans Office of Federal Resources (OFR)
Categorical Exclusion (CE)
One of three (3) Classes of Action which prescribes the level of documentation required in the NEPA process. The CEs are Class II Actions, which do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the environment; therefore, neither an EA, nor an EIS is required. Under NEPA Delegation, there are two means of categorically excluding a project: 1) Section 6004 Categorical Exclusions and 2) Section 6005 Categorical Exclusions.
Categorical Exemption/Categorical Exclusion Form
Joint state/local form used to document the applicable MOU under which the CE determination has been made.
Center Subsystems
Subsystems that provide management, administrative and support functions for the transportation system. Also one of four general subsystems defined in the NA.
Certificate of Compliance
A certificate signed by the manufacturer of materials stating that the materials involved comply in all respects with the requirements of the specifications.
Claim Letter
Owner’s liability determination along with supporting documentations. It is the owner’s responsibility to support their claim.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
The CFR are not legislated statutes, but have do have the force of law.
Configuration Management
A process developed to control change in complex information technology based systems.
Conflict Resolution Plan
Also known as Relocation Plan. Plan from owner to resolve the conflict with activity of a transportation project. This plan should clearly define scope of work and the duration of construction.
Congestion Management Agency (CMA)
A county-wide body, directed by Prop. 111, charged with helping to coordinate land use, air quality and transportation planning among the local jurisdictions and monitor levels of congestion on major roads and analyze the impacts that a proposed development will have on future traffic congestion.
Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program (CMAQ)
Construction (CON)
As defined in the United States Code (USC): The term “construction” means the supervising, inspecting, actual building, and all expenses incidental to the construction or reconstruction of a highway, including locating, surveying, and mapping (including the establishment of temporary and permanent geodetic markers in accordance with specifications of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the Department of Commerce), resurfacing, restoration, and rehabilitation, acquisition of rights of way, relocation assistance, elimination of hazards of railway grade crossings, elimination of roadside obstacles, acquisition of replacement housing sites, acquisition and rehabilitation, relocation, and construction of replacement housing, and improvements which directly facilitate and control traffic flow, such as grade separation of intersections, widening of lanes, channelization of traffic, traffic control systems, and passenger loading and unloading areas. The term also includes capital improvement which directly facilitate an effective vehicle weight enforcement program, such as scales (fixed and portable), scale pits, scale installation, and scale houses and also includes costs incurred by the state in performing federal-aid project related audits which directly benefit the federal-aid highway program.
Construction Engineering (CE)
This phase includes the work of project advertising through construction, preparation of as built plans, final estimates, and payments. This phase must be authorized prior to advertising, and CE must be separately identified in this authorization.
Construction Phase
The phase of the transportation project development process that involves the physical act of building by a contractor the proposed project to all plans and specifications developed during final design.
A private individual, corporation, or other business organization that may be selected to provide architectural, engineering, environmental, or other related technical services for a local agency project.
An amount of funds usually a small percentage of the detail estimate, set aside for unforeseen items or quantities of work not specified in the contract documents, but required to complete the project. The percentage used for contingencies varies depending on the type and scope of work.
Contract Administration
Includes advertising, opening bids, award, and execution of the contract; control of work and material; and making payments to the contractor.
Contract Change Order (CCO)
Contract Claim
A demand for additional compensation, which cannot be resolved between the contractor and the local agency representative in responsible charge of the project.
Contract Claim Award
A payment made by a local agency to a federal-aid contractor on the basis of an arbitration or mediation proceeding, administrative board determination, court judgment, negotiated settlement, or other contract claim settlement.
Contract Claim Defense Costs
Local agency costs related to the defense and settlement of contract claims including, but not limited to, salaries of employees, consultants, attorney fees, boards of arbitration, appeals boards, courts or similar tribunals.
The person or persons, firm, partnership, corporation, or combination thereof, who have entered into a contract with the administering agency, as party or parties of the second part of his/her or their legal representatives.
Controlling Criteria
The specific minimum criteria and controls contained in the design standards that are of primary importance for safety. Deviations from these controlling criteria require design exception approval in accordance with Section 11.4 of this chapter.
Cost-Effectiveness/Public Interest Finding
A written document outlining the basis for a proposed deviation from a standard procedure as required in Title 23 of the Code of Federal Regulations. The finding contains supporting documentation such as cost/benefit analysis, product compatibility, etc., and includes reasons that the proposed deviation is considered to be cost-effective or for the public’s best interest. Exhibit 12-F, “Request for Approval of Cost-Effectiveness/Public Interest Finding” of this chapter, is a preprinted blank form that should be used by local agencies to prepare a “Cost-Effectiveness/Public Interest Finding.” Caltrans and FHWA approval is required for local agency projects that are “High Profile.”
Cumulative Impact
The impact on the environment, which results from the incremental impact of the action when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions regardless of what agency (federal or non- federal) or person undertakes such other actions. Cumulative impacts can result from individually minor but collectively significant actions taking place over a period of time.


Data Dictionary Entry (DDE)
Contains definitions and description of every data flow included in the logical architecture view of the NA as well as identification of lower level data elements that make up the data flow.
Data Flow Diagram
The diagrams in the logical architecture view of the NA that show the functions that are required for ITS and the data that moves between these functions.
Data Flows
They represent data flowing between processes or between processes and a terminator. A data flow is shown as an arrow on a data flow diagram and is defined in a data dictionary entry. Data flows are aggregated together to form high-level architecture flows in the physical architecture view of the NA. See Data Flow diagram.
Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC)
A wireless communications channel used for close-proximity communications between vehicles and the immediate infrastructure. It supports location-specific communications for ITS services such as toll collection, transit vehicle management, driver information, and automated commercial vehicle operations. Also one of four types of interconnects defined in the NA.
Delegated Project
A lower risk project not selected as High Profile project, for which Caltrans has authority for all aspects of a federal-aid project except those activities which may not be delegated by federal law (requiring Federal Highway Administration [FHWA] approval). Prior to September 2007, these projects were referred to as “State-Authorized” projects defined by set criteria (rather than risk) such as non-Interstate 3R projects, Interstate construction projects under $1 million, non-NHS projects, and so forth. Over 99% of local assistance projects are delegated in which Caltrans or the local agency has approval authority for most project level activities.
A rescission of the commitment where the federal government promises to pay the recipient for the federal share of projects’s eligible cost.
Design Exception Approval
A process to justify, approve, and document allowable deviations from controlling criteria.
Design Standards
The standards, specifications, procedures, guides and references listed herein that are acceptable for application in the geometric, structural, pavement and hydraulic design of local federal-aid projects.
Direct Effects
Effects caused by a given action and occurring at the same time and place. Changes in noise levels; fill discharges in wetlands; and changes in visual conditions are some examples of direct effects.
Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (DBE)
A for-profit “small business concern” that is at least 51 percent owned and controlled by one or more socially and economically disadvantaged individuals. One or more such individuals must also control the management and daily business operations. These individuals must be citizens lawfully admitted permanent residents of the United States and (1) any individual who a recipient finds to be a socially and economically disadvantaged individual on a case-by-case basis, or (2) who are either African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Native Americans, Asian-Pacific Americans, Subcontinent Asian Americans, (persons whose origin are from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives Islands, Nepal or Sri Lanka), Women, or any other group found to be socially and economically disadvantaged by the Small Business Administration (see CFR, Part 26).
A subdivision of the Department organized to administer the affairs of the Department for a specific geographical area and for the local agencies in that area (see Exhibit 2-A of the LAPM).
District Local Assistance Engineer (DLAE)
The individual in each district responsible for providing services and assistance to the local agencies.
District Utility Coordinator
Caltrans Right of Way Utility Coordinator assigned to a project.
Division of Local Assistance (DLA)
The office in Caltrans headquarters that is responsible for administering, managing, and implementing the federal-aid highway and state local assistance programs.


Early Coordination
Communication undertaken near the beginning of the transportation project development process to exchange information and work cooperatively with agencies and the public in an effort to determine the type and scope of studies, the level of analysis, and related study requirements.
A project and funding specifically defined in legislation.
Includes: (a) Direct effects that are caused by the action and occur at the same time and place, (b) Indirect effects that are caused by the action and are later in time or farther removed in distance, but are still reasonably foreseeable. The terms “effect” and “impact” are synonymous under NEPA. Effects include ecological, aesthetic, historic, cultural, economic, social, or health, whether direct, indirect or cumulative.
Electronic Authorization to Proceed (E-76)
The federal document that provides federal authorization to allow reimbursable work to begin for a specific phase.

Emergency Relief (ER) :

The complex of social, natural, and cultural condition, which are present in the physical surroundings.
Environmental Assessment (EA)
One of three (3) Classes of Action which prescribes the level of documentation required in the NEPA process. EAs are Class III Actions in which the significance of the environmental impact is not clearly established. All actions that are not Class I (EISs) or Class II (CEs) are Class III. Class III Actions require the preparation of an EA to determine the appropriate environmental document required.
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
One of three (3) NEPA Classes of Action which prescribes the level of documentation required in the NEPA process. EISs are Class I Actions. These are actions that significantly affect the environment and for which an EIS must be prepared. Examples of Class I Actions include a highway project of four or more lanes on a new location, and new construction or extension of a separate roadway not located within an existing highway facility, etc.

Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) :

Equipment Package
A group of ITS elements that are combined to perform one or more specific functions. A Market Package is generally made up of one or more Equipment Packages.
Exempt ITS Project
See LAPM Section 13.2.1 for a full definition and examples.

Expenditure Authorization Number (EA) :


Federal Fiscal Year (FFY)
The accounting period for the federal budget. The Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) is from October 1 until September 30. The FFY is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. For example, FFY 06 runs from October 1, 2005 until September 30, 2006.
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA)
The federal agency responsible for administering the Federal-aid Highway Program.
Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS)
Federal Project Number (FPN)
Federal Statewide Transportation Improvement Program (FSTIP)
A four-year list of all state and local transportation projects proposed for federal surface transportation funding with the state. This is developed by Caltrans with cooperation of the MPOs and in consultation with the local non-urbanized government. The FSTIP includes the FTIPs, which are incorporated by reference and other rural federally funded projects. The FSTIP, including incorporated FTIPs is only valid for use after FHWA/FTA approval. See Chapter 4 of the Caltrans Project Development Procedures Manual for more discussion. Also see STIP below.
Federal Transit Administration (FTA)
The federal agency responsible for administering the federal transit program. Rules for the transit program are not covered in this manual (see Chapter 3, “Project Authorization,” Section 3.11 for procedures for transferring federal-aid funds from FHWA to FTA).
Federal Transportation Improvement Program (FTIP)
A four-year list of all transportation projects proposed for federal surface transportation funding within the planning area of one of the 18 Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs) in the state. These are only valid for reference when incorporated into the FSTIP and approved by FHWA/FTA (see Chapter 4 of the Caltrans Project Development Procedures Manual for more discussion).
Refers to federal funds provided for the development of surface transportation and administered by the FHWA. Generally, these funds are derived from the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU), Title I Federal-aid Highways and other Titles. It also includes FHWA administered funds from previous acts frequently titled Highway Acts.
Federal-Aid Data System (FADS)
State database.
Field Review
A general term to describe a site visit for the purpose of gathering or verifying data, defining scopes of work, performing analyses, and making decisions for specific projects.
Final Design Phase
The phase of the transportation project development process, which involves the preparation of detailed, working drawings, as well as specifications and estimates for approved transportation projects.
Final Inspection Form and revision date (Form FIF-6/05)
Document used by local agency to complete the final inspection of all projects (Exhibit 17-C).
Final Inspection of Federal-aid Project (Form FHWA 1446C)
Document used by Caltrans to complete the final inspection of NHS Projects subject to FHWA Full Oversight (Exhibit 17-B).
Final Invoice
Invoice listing final cost incurred for a particular phase of the project, i.e., Preliminary Engineering, Construction Engineering, Right of Way, or Construction. The District Local Assistance Engineer (DLAE) is required to verify project completion and approve payment before forwarding the final invoice to Local Programs Accounting (LPA). For example, see Exhibit 17-C, and refer to Chapter 5, “Accounting/Invoices,” for instructions.
Finance Letter
Project funding summary document required by Local Programs Accounting. It is prepared by the administering agency and submitted to Caltrans as backup information for the federal-aid/state project agreement.
Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)
A document by a federal agency that briefly presents the reasons why an action will not have a significant effect on the environment and for which an environmental impact statement, therefore, will not be prepared.
Fiscal Management Information System (FMIS)
Federal database.

Fiscal Year (State) (FY) :

Force Account
A basis of payment for the direct performance of highway construction work with payment based on actual cost of labor, equipment, and materials furnished with consideration for overhead and profit.
Men and women in direct charge of crafts workers or laborers performing work on the project.
Frequency Tables
See Exhibit 16-R.
Full Oversight
Projects on the Interstate that are new or reconstruction (not 3R) greater than $1 million for which FHWA has Full Oversight.
Fully Funded
As related to the NEPA document, projects must be fully funded and shown in the applicable FTIP/RTP before Caltrans can approve the related NEPA document. Partial funding of a project may get their Preliminary Engineering (PE) started but the environmental NEPA document is not approvable without the total funding.

Functional Classification (FC) :

Functional Requirements
What a system must do to address the needs or provide the services that have been identified for the ITS Project. In a regional ITS architecture, the functional requirements focus on the high-level requirements for providing desired service to the user.
Functionally Obsolete (FO)
See Section 6.12.1 on page 6-35.
Funding Allocation
Distribution (approval) of EEM funds by the CTC to a specific project. An applicant must receive their funding allocation from the CTC within the first fiscal year of program adoption.


Funds that are granted to a project on a competitive basis at the discretion of the Transportation Secretary


The headquarters office of the Department located at 1120 “N” St., Sacramento, CA 95814.
High Profile
High Profile projects are high risk projects for which the FHWA maintains project level approval for most project delivery activities. Prior to September 2007, these projects were referred to as FHWA “Full Oversight” projects based on set criteria (rather than risk) such as Interstate construction over $1 million, major Intelligent Transportation System, and so forth. Criteria listed in LAPM Chapter 2. Very few local assistance projects are High Profile projects.
High Risk ITS Project
Previously called “Major ITS Project.” An ITS project that has one or more of the seven risk factors identified in Section 13.2 (above) is generally considered a high-risk ITS project. (See also “Low-Risk ITS Project.”)

High-Occupancy Vehicle HOV) :

Highway Bridge Program HBP) :

Highway Bridge Replacement and Rehabilitation Program (HBRRP) :

Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) :

Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS) :

Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) :

Highway System Engineering (HSE) :


Impacted Utility Facility
A public utility facility has been identified as in conflict with the proposed activity of a transportation project.
A term to describe the positive or negative effects upon the natural or human environment as a result of a specific project or projects.
Inactive Project
A project that has a lapse of more than one year between invoices. Subject to FHWA deobligation of federal funds in compliance with the FHWA Final Rule on Inactive Projects.
Independent Assurance Sampling and Testing (IAST)
Periodic testing by a specially trained tester, to verify that acceptance testing is being performed correctly with accurate test equipment.
Independent Utility
The ability of a transportation improvement to be usable and be a reasonable expenditure even if no additional transportation improvements in the area are made.
Indirect Effects
Effects caused by a given action, occurring later in time, or farther removed in distance, but which are reasonably foreseeable. Induced changes to land use patterns, population density or growth rate are examples.
Institutional Integration
Represents the process of combining existing and emerging institutional constraints and arrangements.
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS)
Federal regulations (23 CFR 940) defined ITS as “…electronics, communications, or information technology, used singly or in combination, to improve the efficiency or safety of the surface transportation system.” This is a broad definition, covering the range from small, simple devices up to large and complex systems. In addition to this legal definition, most people say that ITS must include comprehensive management strategies and apply technologies in an integrated manner. The purpose of ITS integration is to share information and reduce redundant spending between jurisdictions. ITS Integration includes both technical and inter-agency aspects of system development. (See section 13.1.5 above for further information.)
The capability to exchange devices of the same type from any vendor without changing the software.
See architecture interconnect. Also applies to traffic signal interconnect.
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA)
An Act signed by the President on December 18, 1991, providing authorization for six (6) years for highways, highway safety, and mass transportation. ISTEA was superseded by TEA 21 in 1998 and by SAFETEA-LU in 2005.

International Roughness Index (IRI) :

The capability to operate devices from different manufacturers or different device types (e.g. signal controllers and dynamic message signs on the same communication channel).

Interregional Improvement Program (Portion of STIP) (IIP) :

A detailed list of expenditures that an administering agency requests reimbursement for with federal funds, pursuant to the Local Agency-State Agreement (see Chapter 5, Exhibit 5-B, “Sample Federal-aid Invoice with Two Appropriations & Different Reimbursement Rates”).
ITS Architecture
Defines how systems functionally operate and the interconnection of information exchanges that must take place between these systems to accomplish transportation services.
ITS Strategic Plan
A guide for long-term implementation of ITS in the state, metropolitan area or region. It normally includes identifying regional transportation needs and then defining ITS elements to be implemented over time, aimed at meeting those needs. RA is typically a core component of an ITS strategic plan.




Laborer, Semi-Skilled
All laborers classified by specialized type of work.
Laborer, Unskilled
Non-classified laborers.

Last Resort Housing (LRH( :

Lead Agency
The agency responsible for the implementation of a project’s preliminary engineering (PE), Right-of-Way (R/W) and/or construction.
Legacy System
Existing transportation systems, communication systems or institutional systems.
Level-of-Service (LOS)
Also known, as “Traffic Service.” LOS is a qualitative measure describing operational conditions within a traffic stream. LOS is based on service measures such as speed and travel time, freedom to maneuver, traffic interruptions, comfort and convenience. LOS is also affected by conditions such as number of access points, lane width, number of lanes, and percentage of large vehicles. Six levels of service are defined by letter designations from A to F with LOS A representing the best operating conditions, and LOS F the worst.
Life Cycle
Denotes the strategic cycle or sequencing of a specific process.

Linear Reference System (LRS) :

Local Agency
A California city, county, or other local public agency. In many instances this term is used loosely to include nonprofit organizations.
Local Agency-State Agreement
An agreement between the State and local agency. Generally refers to the Master Agreement and all supplemental agreements (Program Supplements) to the Master Agreements. These agreements are required for the State to provide reimbursement to the local agency for all federal-aid projects.
Local Assistance Procedures Manual (LAPM)
This manual describes the procedures that Caltrans and local agencies must follow so that local agencies may be reimbursed by various State and Federal Programs.
Local Assistance Program Guidelines (LAPG)
This manual explains the eligibility and funding requirements of all the local assistance programs. The HBRRP is Chapter 6 of the LAPG.
Local Assistance Project
A local surface transportation project funded with federal and/or state funds for the operation, maintenance, and acquisition or development of facilities or land, provided the local entity retains ownership after completion of the project.
Local Program Procedures (LPP)
Documents used for deployment of new procedures and policies between updates of Local Assistance manual, guidelines and programs. Each procedure is numbered according to calendar year and order in which released.

Local Programs Accounting Branch (LPA) :

Local Seismic Safety Retrofit Program (LSSRP) :

Numeric identifier for each local agency or administering agency (assigned by the Division of Local Assistance).
Logical Architecture
This relates primarily to the software part of the system. It defines the thought or logic processes that perform ITS functions and the information or data flows that are shared between these processes.
Logical Termini
Features such as cross route locations that are considered rational end points for a transportation improvement and which serve to make it useable.
Low-Risk ITS Project
Previously called “Minor ITS Project.” An ITS project that has none of the seven risk factors identified in Section 13.2 (above) is generally considered a low-risk ITS project. (See also “High-Risk ITS Project.”)


As defined in the USC, the preservation of the entire highway, including surface, shoulders, roadsides, structures, and such traffic control devices as are necessary for its safe and efficient utilization.
Maintenance Plan
A description of configuration control and update guidelines for regional and/or project ITS architectures. The primary purpose of the maintenance plan is to maintain an architecture baseline.
Major ITS Project
See “High-Risk ITS Project.” This terminology is obsolete.
Market Package
A group of ITS elements that can be combined to perform a User Service. A Market Package is generally made up of one or more Equipment Packages.
Master Agreement
An agreement where the agency agrees to comply with federal and state laws, regulations, and policies.
Materials Certificate
See Exhibit 17-F.
Equipment service and maintenance personnel.
Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO)
Federally mandated regional organizations responsible for comprehensive transportation planning and programming in urbanized areas. Work products include the Transportation Plan, the Transportation Improvement Program, and the Unified Planning Work Program.

Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) :

Minor ITS Project
See “Low-Risk ITS Project.” This terminology is obsolete.
Mitigation Measures
Specific design commitments made during the environmental evaluation and study process, which serve to moderate or lessen impacts deriving from the proposed action. In accordance with CEQA, mitigation includes avoidance, minimization, rectification, reduction, and compensation.


National Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS) :

National Bridge Inventory (NBI)
This is a database of all public highway bridges in the United States.
National Cooperative Highway Research Program NCHRP
Administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) and sponsored by the member departments (i.e., individual state departments of transportation) of AASHTO and FHWA. The NCHRP was created in 1962 to conduct research in acute problem areas that affect highway planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance nationwide.
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
Federal environmental law requiring federal agencies to consider the environmental impacts of their actions, evaluate least damaging alternatives, and ensure decisions are made in the public’s best interest based on a balanced consideration of the need for safe and efficient transportation.
National Highway System (NHS)
Highways that are of national importance are included in the NHS. Specially designated Highway System established by the ISTEA and adopted by U.S. Congress.
National ITS Architecture (NA)
A common established national framework for ITS interconnectivity and interoperability. It comprises the logical architecture and physical architecture that satisfy a defined set of user services. Maintained by the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT).
National Register of Historic Places (NRHP)
A listing of historically or archaeologically significant sites maintained by each state. The NRHP does not contain all significant sites. It only lists those currently identified and that the owner has allowed to be listed. There are many eligible sites that have not been registered, either because they have not been found or they have not yet been nominated.
New Construction
A new transportation facility that did not previously exist in the corridor or as the addition of an interchange. The addition of appurtenances to an existing facility, such as striping, signs, signals, noise barriers, etc. is not considered new construction.
New Location
An area or an alignment proposed for highway development that is not currently used for transportation purposes.
No Action
An alternative that is used as the basis to measure the impacts and benefits of the preferred alternative(s) in an Environmental Assessment or EIS. The No Action alternative consists of the existing conditions on the roadway, plus any safety or maintenance improvements, which have been identified in the CDOT 5-Year Transportation Improvement Program.
No-Build Alternative
Normally includes short-term, minor restoration types of activities (e.g. safety and maintenance improvements) that maintain continuing operation of an existing facility. The no-build alternative serves as a baseline for the comparison of other alternatives.
Nonparticipating Costs
Any costs incurred on the project over and above participating costs of EEM funds and match. Nonparticipating costs may be incurred on a project but are excluded from the reimbursement calculations.
Notice of Intent (NOI)
A notice published in the Federal Register that an EIS will be prepared and considered. The notice shall briefly describe the proposed action and possible alternatives, describe the agency’s proposed scoping process including whether, when, and where any scoping meetings will be held, and state the name and address of a person within the agency who can answer questions about the proposed action and the EIS.


Commitments made by federal agencies to pay out money as distinct from the actual payments, which are “outlays.” Generally, obligations are incurred after the enactment of budget authority. However, since budget authority in many highway programs is in the form of contract authority, obligations in these cases are permitted to be incurred immediately after apportionment or allocation. The obligations are for the federal share of the estimated full cost of each project at the time it is approved regardless of when the actual payments are made or the expected time of project completion.
Obligation Authority (OA)
The total amount of federal funds that may be obligated in a FFY.
Obligation Limitation
Acts as a ceiling on the sum of all obligations that can be made within a specified time period, usually a fiscal year.
Office Engineer
Chief of the Headquarters or District Office of Office Engineer. The office engineering unit is responsible for insuring that the PS&E is complete, biddable and buildable.
Officials (Managers)
Officers, project engineers, superintendents, etc., having management level responsibilities and authority.
Miscellaneous job classifications are to be incorporated in the most appropriate category listed on the form. All employees on the project should thus be accounted for.
Overall Work Plan (OWP)
The MPO/RTPA’s transportation planning structure/plan for the state fiscal year, July 1 through June 30.

Overcrossing (OC) :

Utility company, municipal utility department, who owns the impacted facility. Utility Coordinator - local agency’s person who acts as a liaison with owners.


Paint Condition Index (PCI)
See Section 6.2.3 on page 6-7.
Participating Costs
Project related costs (inclusive of both EEM funds and match) incurred during the project performance period and prescribed in the Resources Agency’s EEM Procedures and Criteria as eligible for reimbursement. Reimbursement for participating costs will be limited to those specified in the project budget, EEM Grant Application, CTC Allocation Resolution, and the Applicant-State Agreement (Agreement) or its amendments.
Written permission given by a governmental agency to take certain action during specific steps of the transportation project development process. Permits may include permission for any construction, excavation, depositing of material, or other work in navigable waters (Corps of Engineers), permission required for the discharge of dredged, or fill material into waters of the United States (Corps of Engineers), and permission to construct bridges, causeways, and drawbridges in navigable waters (U.S. Coast Guard). A permit may also refer certain other clearances or certifications such as a clearance from the Federal Aviation Administration for proposed highway construction in the vicinity of public use and military airports, and water quality certifications for the licensing of an action that would result in a discharge into regulated waters. These approvals, plus certain others relating to solid waste management, underground storage tanks, coastal zone areas, etc., involve approvals and documentation commonly referred to as permits.
For the purposes of federal-aid authorization, the development of a project is broken into stages or phases: Preliminary Engineering, Right of Way and Construction. Each of these phases must be individually authorized, usually at different times in the development of a project.
Physical Architecture
This is primarily the hardware part of the system. The part of the NA that provides a physical representation of the important ITS interfaces and major system components. The principal elements of the physical architecture are the subsystems, terminators and the communication interface between them.

Plans, Specifications & Estimate (PS&E) :

Post Mile (PM) :

Preliminary Engineering (PE)
This phase includes all project initiation and development activities undertaken after its inclusion in the approved FSTIP through the completion of PS&E. It may include preliminary Right of Way engineering and investigations necessary to complete the environmental document.
The AASHTO defines prequalification as a means of predetermining job experience and work capacity and to identify individuals and organizations from which the agency may accept a bid. The AASHTO also has encouraged the use of prequalification procedures in its 1981 Suggested Guidelines for Strengthening Bidding and Contract Procedures.
Preventive Maintenance
Includes, but is not limited to, roadway activities such as joint and shoulder rehabilitation, heater re-mix, seal coats, corrective grinding of PCC pavement, and restoration of drainage systems.
Process Specification (PSpec)
The textual definition of the most detailed process identified in the logical architecture view of the NA. The PSpec includes an overview, a set of functional requirements, a complete set of inputs and outputs, and a list of user service requirements that are satisfied by the PSpec.

Program Supplement Agreement (PSA) :

Progress Invoice
Periodic billing invoice by local/regional agencies for reimbursement of costs on on-going contracts.
A portion of a highway or local road that a local agency proposes to construct, reconstruct, or improve as described in the FSTIP, RTIP. A project may consist of several contracts or phases over several years.

Project Approval/Environmental Document (PA/ED) :

Project Development
“The overall process of advancing a transportation project from concept to implementation. Project development typically encompasses environmental and engineering tasks including planning, location, preliminary design, final design, and construction. “
Project ITS Architecture (PIA)
A framework that identifies the institutional agreement and technical integration necessary to define an ITS project and its interface with other ITS projects and systems.
Project Need
A detailed explanation of the specific transportation problems or deficiencies, which have generated the search for improvements. It should refer to technical information, as necessary, such as measures of traffic efficiency, or demand (origin-destination patterns, modal links, queue lengths, motorist delays, level of service, etc.), and other goals (economic development, safety improvement, legislative directives, etc.). Much of this information should be generated by the transportation planning process at a very early stage. The explanation of need should be a problem statement discussion, not a solution oriented discussion.

Project Planning Number (PPNO) :

Project Purpose
A broad statement of the overall intended objective to be achieved by a proposed transportation facility. Normally, the purpose can be defined in just a few sentences. For instance, it may address expanded capacity in a given transportation corridor to facilitate the safe and efficient movement of people and goods, or improved access to a given area or community.
Project Sponsor
The agency or special interest group that requests and earmark through a congress-person.
Protocol Communications
A set of rules for how messages are coded and transmitted between electronic devices. The equipment at each end of a data transmission must use the same protocol to successfully communicate. It is like human language that has an alphabet, vocabulary, and grammar rules used by everyone who speaks that language.
Public Hearing
A meeting designed to afford the public the fullest opportunity to express opinions on a transportation project. A verbatim record (transcript) of the proceedings is made part of the project record.
Public Involvement
These activities, which present information to the public, seek public comments and which serve to ensure consideration of public opinion.
Public Meeting
An announced meeting conducted by transportation officials designed to facilitate participation in the decision-making process, and to assist the public in gaining an informed view of a proposed project at any level of the transportation project development process. Also, such a gathering may be referred to as a public information meeting.
Public Utility Facilities
Publicly and privately owned utility facilities, which serve the public.


Quality Assurance Program (QAP)
A sampling and testing program that will provide assurance that the materials and workmanship incorporated in each highway construction project are in conformance with the contract specifications. The main elements of a Quality Assurance Program are acceptance testing and independent assurance sampling and testing.
Quality Control/Quality Assurance (QC/QA)


Race Conscious Measure or Program
One that is focused specifically on assisting only DBEs. The use of contract goals is the primary example of a race conscious measure in the DBE program.
Race Neutral Measure or Program
A race neutral measure or program is one that, while benefiting DBEs, is not solely focused on DBE firms. For example, small business outreach programs, technical assistance programs, and prompt payment clauses can assist a wide variety of small businesses, not just DBEs. For purposes here, race neutral includes gender neutrality.
Record of Decision (ROD)
The ROD documents the Secretary of Transportation’s decision to approve the Preferred Alternative as described in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).
Record Retention
Project records shall be kept for at least 3 years after FHWA’s final payment of the final voucher, per 49 CFR, Part 18.

Regional Improvement Program (Portion of STIP) (RIP) :

Regional ITS Architecture (RA)
A regional or state level framework for ensuring institutional agreement and technical integration for the implementation of ITS projects or groups of projects. It defines what pieces of the system are linked to others and what information is exchanged between them.

Regional Surface Transportation Program (RSTP) :

Regional Transportation Planning Agency (RTPA)
Implies providing some betterments, such as upgrading guardrail or widening shoulders.
Reimbursement Ratio
A percentage used to pay the applicant, the State’s pro rata share of EEM funds on the project. The reimbursement ratio is derived from the State’s share of EEM funds to the total project cost, and is calculated from the applicant’s original project budget and the CTC approved EEM funding. The reimbursement ratio does not vary and is included in the Applicant-State Agreement.

Relocation Assistance Program (RAP) :

Report of Expenditures
Collectively refers to various final report documents.
Requirements Definitions
A total set of considerations that govern what is to be accomplished, how well and under what conditions.
Resident Engineer (RE)
A qualified engineer who is empowered to administer the construction contract. Pursuant to California professional engineering licensing requirements, the resident engineer may be unlicensed provided their work is performed under the review of a licensed engineer.
Returning a road, structure, or collateral facility to the condition existing after original construction.
Generally consists of placing additional asphalt concrete over a structurally sound highway or bridge that needs treatment to extend its useful service life.
Right of Way (R/W)
This phase includes the work necessary to appraise and acquire project right of way, relocate individuals or businesses, and revise or relocate utilities.
Roadside Subsystems
One of four general classes of subsystems defined in the NA. This class is distributed along the transportation network, which performs surveillance, information provision, and control functions. Located on roadway facilities, parking facilities, toll systems, and commercial vehicle check systems that are at or near the roadside.


Safe Routes to School Program (SR2S)
Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient, Transportation Equity Act - A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU)
Signed into law by President George W. Bush, on August 10, 2005, with guaranteed funding for highways, highway safety, and public transportation totaling $244.1 billion. SAFETEA-LU represents the largest surface transportation investment to date. SAFETEA-LU was built on the foundation established by two preceding Federal Transportation Acts: ISTEA and TEA-21.
Sausage Diagram
A top-level diagram, which depicts all subsystems in the NA and the basic communication, interconnects between the subsystems. It can be used as a template for the physical architecture portion of a RA.
Scope consists of the range of actions, alternatives, and impacts to be considered in a NEPA document.
Scope of Work
A detailed description of tasks is prepared in advance of engineering and environmental work to explicitly define the contents of studies.
Section 4(f)
Section 4(f) of the U.S. Department of Transportation Act of 1966 permits the use of land for a federally-funded transportation project from a significant publicly owned park, recreation area, wildlife or waterfowl refuge, or historic site when it has been determined that: (1) there are no feasible and prudent alternatives to such use, and (2) the project includes all possible planning to minimize harm to the property.
Service Boundaries
The geographic boundary of a specific service or agency that provides a service. An example is the service area of a transit agency. The transit agency provides services within a defined boundary.
Significant Impacts
Any number of social, environmental, or economic effects, or influences which may be brought about as a result of the implementation of a transportation improvement. “Significant impacts” may include effects, which are direct, secondary, or cumulative. The term “significant” is used and interpreted by the FHWA in determining which type of NEPA document is appropriate. Categorical exclusions are those actions, which do not involve significant effects. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) projects in most cases can and do involve significant impacts.
As used in NEPA requires consideration of both context and intensity. Context means that the significance of an action must be analyzed in several contexts such as society as a whole (human, national), the affected region, the affected interests, and the locality. Intensity refers to the severity of the impact.
Small Business Concern
Small Business Concern means with respect to firms seeking to participate as DBEs in U.S. DOT-assisted contracts, a Small Business Concern as defined pursuant to Section 3 of the Small Business Act and Small Business Administration regulations implementing it (13 CFR, Part 121) that also does not exceed the cap on average annual gross receipts specified in Section 26.65(b) of 49 CFR.
Source Inspection
Acceptance testing of manufactured and prefabricated materials at locations other than the job site.
The directions, provisions, and requirements contained in the contract documents for a specific construction project. Included are various proposal conditions, contract administration provisions, required construction methods, and technical requirements for materials.
Standard Plans
A collection of plan details developed for use as a reference for construction contract documents. Included are standard abbreviations, symbols, design notes, design conditions and data, construction details, specifications, layouts, and measurement and payment details.
Standard Specifications
A published document that contains commonly used specifications developed for use as a reference for construction contract documents.
Established and documented technical specifications sponsored by a Standards Development Organization (SDO) to be used consistently by industries or government for interoperability, compatibility, interconnectability, interchangeability and expandability. Already developed ITS standards can be found in the NA website by selecting an Architecture Flow.
State Funding Participation
EEM funds allocated to the project by the CTC. Participating Costs - Project related costs (inclusive of both EEM funds and match) incurred during the project performance period and prescribed in the Resources Agency’s EEM Procedures and Criteria as eligible for reimbursement. Reimbursement for participating costs will be limited to those specified in the project budget, EEM Grant Application, CTC Allocation Resolution, and the Applicant-State Agreement (Agreement) or its amendments.
State Funds
As used in this manual, includes the state funds provided to local agencies for specific transportation projects and programs administered by the DLA.

State Highway Account (SHA) :

State Highway Agency (SHA)

State Highway System (SHS) :

State Transportation Department (STD) :

State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP)
A five-year list of projects proposed in RTIPs and the proposed STIP that are approved and adopted by the California Transportation Commission (CTC) (see Chapter 4 of the Caltrans Project Development Procedures Manual for more discussion).
State-Authorized Project
A classification for federal-aid projects, which are not subject to FHWA review and oversight required by Title 23 Code of Federal Regulations. For State-Authorized federal-aid projects, the FHWA and Caltrans exercises the maximum degree of delegation of authority to local agencies (see Chapter 2, Section 2.4, Stewardship - Letters of Agreement, and Figure 2-1, FHWA Oversight).
Statewide Overall DBE Goal
As required by federal regulation, Caltrans has established a statewide overall DBE goal. This is the level of participation that Caltrans would expect DBEs to achieve. In order to ascertain whether the Statewide Overall DBE Goal is achieved, Caltrans will track DBE participation on all federal-aid contracts.
Stewardship Agreement
A signed agreement between the FHWA and Caltrans defining the extent to which Caltrans and FHWA have project approval and oversight responsibilities.

Strategic Highway Corridor Network (STRAHNET) :

Structurally Deficient (SD)
See LAPG Section 6.12.1 on page 6-35.
Structures Local Assistance (SLA)
See Section 6.9.3 on page 6-33.
Study Area
An identified amount of land or topography, selected, and defined at the outset of engineering, or environmental evaluations, which are sufficiently adequate in size to fully identify, analyze, document impacts and effects for proposed projects within its boundaries.
The principal structural elements of the physical architecture view of the NA. Subsystems are grouped in four classes: centers, roadside, vehicles and travelers.
Sufficiency Rating (SR)
See Section 6.12.1 on page 6-35.
All levels of project supervision, if any, between management and foreman levels.
Supplemental Work
Work that is anticipated but because of its uncertainty, cannot be included as a contract item e.g., additional staking, utility work, etc. If supplemental work is determined to be needed, a change order is required to include it in the contract. This work should normally be part of the contingencies.
A security against loss or damage or for the fulfillment of contract obligation, bond.
Surface Transportation Program (STP)
A category of federal-aid for general purpose transportation uses. See 23USC133.

Statewide Integrated Tracking Records System (SWITRS)

System Inventory
The collection of all ITS related elements in a RA.
Systems Engineering Analysis
A structured process for arriving at a final design of a system. The final design is selected from a number of alternatives that would accomplish the same objectives and considers the total life-cycle of the project including not only the technical merits of potential solutions but also the costs and relative value of alternatives.
Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP)
A set of documents that describe how the systems-engineering elements of a High-Risk ITS project will be managed. See Figure 13.5 for a diagram showing the role of the SEMP, and see Section 13.4.1 for a narrative description. For a full description of the SEMP plus examples, see the FHWA/Caltrans “Systems Engineering Guidebook for ITS”.
Systems Engineering Review Form (SERF)
A form containing seven questions about an ITS project, which must be completed for all Low-Risk and High-Risk ITS projects. See Figure 13.5 for a diagram showing the role of the SERF, and see Section 13.4.1 for a narrative description.


Traffic Accident Surveillance Analysis System (TASAS)
TASAS is a sophisticated version of an EDP traffic records system. It has an accident data base (AXDB), linked to a highway data base (HDB) which contains description elements of highway segments, intersections and ramps, access control, traffic volumes and other data. TASAS serves the needs of many offices within Caltrans and also provides roadway and/or accident information for other associated State and local agencies. Traffic Control Plan (TCP)
A plan to permit the contractor to work within the public right of way efficiently and effectively while maintaining a safe, uniform flow of traffic.
Transportation Act / Authorization Act
A statutory provision that establishes or continues a federal agency, activity, or program, for a fixed or indefinite period of time.
Transportation Enhancements Program (TE)
Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21)
Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century was enacted on June 9, 1998, which authorized the federal surface programs for highways, highway safety, and transit for the six (6) year period 1998-2003. It was superseded by SAFETEA-LU in 2005.
Transportation Injury Mapping System (TIMS)
A system established by researchers at the Safe Transportation Research and Education Center (SafeTREC) at the University of California, Berkeley to provide data and mapping analysis tools and information for traffic safety related research, policy and planning.
Transportation Project Development Process
An interactive, multi-phase series of activities typically spanning a period of years which involve comprehensive planning, prioritization, detailed engineering and environmental studies, and agency and public involvement which lead to the selection, design, and construction of identified transportation improvements.
Transportation Research Board (TRB)
A division of the National Research Council, which serves as an independent adviser to the President, the Congress and federal agencies on scientific and technical questions of national importance. The National Research Council is jointly administered by the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board—one of six major divisions of the National Research Council—is to promote innovation and progress in transportation through research. In an objective and interdisciplinary setting, the Board facilitates the sharing of information on transportation practice and policy by researchers and practitioners; stimulates research and offers research management services that promote technical excellence; provides expert advice on transportation policy and programs; and disseminates research results broadly and encourages their implementation.
Traveler Subsystems
Equipment used by travelers to access ITS services pre-trip and en route. This includes services owned and operated by the traveler as well as services that are owned by transportation and information providers. One of four general subsystem classes defined in the NA.
Turbo Architecture
An automated software tool used to input and manage system inventory, market packages, interconnects and architecture flows with regards to RA. The Turbo Architecture is an excellent software tool for developing RA, PIA, development and design of an ITS project. However, the Turbo Architecture must be purchased since it is not a public domain.
Types of Construction
3R Work: All other work which do not fall into the defined categories for new construction, reconstruction or preventive maintenance and typically involves the improvement of highway pavement surfaces through resurfacing, restoration, or rehabilitation.


Unanticipated Utility Relocation
Unforeseen, or discovery utility relocations as a result of accident or incomplete utility verification/conflict identification.

Undercrossing (UC) :

Underutilized Disadvantaged Business Enterprise (UDBE)
A firm meeting the definition of a DBE as specified in 49 CFR, Part 26 and is one of the following groups: African Americans, Asian-Pacific Americans, Native Americans, and Women.
United State Code (USC)
User Service Requirements
Specific statements specifying what must be done to support the ITS user services. The user services requirements were developed specifically to serve as a baseline to drive NA development. The user service requirements are not requirements to system/architecture implementers, but rather are directions to the NA development team.
User Services
A service that ITS provides the user from the user’s perspective. A broad range of users are considered, include the traveling public as well as many different types of system operators. User Services form the basis for the National ITS Architecture development effort. Currently, 33 user services are defined in the NA.
Utility Coordinator
The local agency’s person who acts as a liaison with owners.
Utility Relocation
Any adjustment to the impacted utility facility required by the proposed transportation project.


Value Engineering Analysis
The systematic application of recognized techniques by a multi-disciplined team to identify the function of a product or service; establish a worth for that function; generate alternatives through the use of creative thinking; and provide the needed functions to accomplish the original purpose of the project, reliably, and at the lowest life-cycle cost without sacrificing safety, necessary quality, and environmental attributes of the project.
Vehicle Subsystems
They are subsystems located in vehicles, which include driver information and safety systems. One of four general subsystem classes defined in the NA.

Vehicles Miles Travelled (VMT) :

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communications
Dedicated wireless system handling high data rate, low probability of error, line-of-sight communications between vehicles. Advanced vehicle services may use this link in the future to support advanced collision avoidance implementations, road condition information sharing, and active coordination to advanced control systems. One of four types of architecture interconnects defined in the NA.


Wireline Communications
A communications link serving fixed locations. It uses a variety of public or private communications networks that may physically include wireless (e.g. microwave) as well as wireline infrastructure. One of four types of architecture interconnects defined in the NA.





23 USC
The section (Title 23) of the United States Code containing laws relating to highways.
23 CFR
The section (Title 23) of the Code of Federal Regulations containing regulations (general and permanent rules published in the Federal Register) relating to highways.